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basic principle of capacitor
Sep 04, 2018

According to the mechanism of electrochemical capacitors storing electrical energy, it can be divided into electric double layer capacitors (EDLC) and tantalum capacitors ( Pesudocapacitor). Carbon-based material supercapacitor energy storage mechanism is mainly based on the electric double layer formed near the carbon surface, so it is usually called electric double layer capacitance; and metal oxide and conductive polymer mainly rely on tantalum capacitance generated by redox reaction.


The basic principle of an electric double layer capacitor is a new type of electronic component that uses an interface electric double layer formed between an electrode and an electrolyte to store energy. When the electrode is in contact with the electrolyte, due to Coulomb force, intermolecular force or interatomic force, a stable, oppositely signed two-layer charge appears at the solid-liquid interface, which is called an interface electric double layer. The size of the electric double layer capacitor is related to the electrode potential and the surface area. The electric double layer capacitor electrode is usually composed of a porous carbon material having a high specific surface area. The carbon material has excellent thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity, low density, good chemical corrosion resistance, small thermal expansion coefficient, and various forms such as powder, granule, block, fiber, cloth, felt, etc. can be obtained by different methods.


The tantalum capacitor is on the surface or in the two-dimensional or quasi-two-dimensional space of the electrode surface. The electroactive material is subjected to underpotential deposition, and a highly reversible chemisorption/desorption or oxidation/reduction reaction occurs to generate a capacitance related to the charge potential of the electrode. . Since the tantalum capacitor not only occurs on the surface but also penetrates deep inside, a higher capacitance and energy density than the electric double layer capacitor can be obtained. Under the same electrode area, the tantalum capacitor can be 10 to 100 times the electric capacity of the electric double layer. At present, tantalum capacitor electrode materials are mainly metal oxides and conductive polymers.

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